Technological progress and the fragmentation of production processes have been seen as two of the most severe shocks on our economies in general and our labour markets in particular in the last decades. Technological progress can make jobs obsolete and trade can increase unemployment in import-competing sectors. Empirical evidence suggests that both causes are important to explain recent labour market developments in many OECD countries. This presentation presents an overview of the relative contribution of international trade and technological change in the national and local labour markets. The overview is based on a meta-analysis of a sample of 77 studies and 1158 estimates, and the evidence finds that both effects are important. The presentation also illustrates these phenomena by presenting evidence for the national and local Dutch labour markets. In particular, the presentation provides evidence of the employment polarization experienced by the Dutch national and local labour markets which is driven by the interplay of automation and the global fragmentation of production. Our analysis draws on uniquely detailed administrative data from Statistics Netherlands, merged with extensive demographic, economic, interregional trade and labor market indicators. The results indicate that the national and local trends of job polarization differ from each other and also from many of the currently-popular arguments. In particular, job polarization is not necessarily primarily an urban phenomenon, but rather it is mainly focused on medium and lower population density areas. It is also primarily evident in higher initial medium- (industry) and high-skill (ICT and finance) employment.
El análisis input-output está en una fase extensiva en cuanto aplicaciones, especialmente en contextos de análisis medioambiental y en las interconexiones regionales, entre otros. Todo bajo una base conceptual que fundamentalmente no ha cambiado en los últimos años. Su desarrollo e implantación ha sido esencialmente empírico. La pregunta que surge es si nos hemos de contentar con ésto o podemos potenciar su base conceptual para ampliar el abanico de aplicaciones y mejorar en su capacidad explicativa. Comentaré algunas posibilidades de generalización que están en marcha.
In a world of Global Value Chains (GVCs), Input-Output tables are enjoying a reincarnation, with a proliferation of initiatives to measure what is now commonly referred to as ‘Trade in Value Added’, (TiVA). However, with some notable exceptions (and not always optimal for measuring GVCs), notably concerning the changes introduced in the 2008 System of National Accounts, and in particular in relation to goods sent abroad for processing, the basic structure of official releases of national IO tables has remained fundamentally unchanged since the early days of Leontief. How has this limited our current view of GVCs? What caveats are needed in the use of TiVA-based indicators? Do we need to adapt our Input-Output, and indeed national accounting, frameworks to better respond to the broader challenges of globalisation, and, if so, how?
Wine is certainly a commodity whose value, though, rests on The historical links with the local practices and environment that differentiate its obtainment, as well as on the exchange of information the producers are able to activate in the larger context. A traditional product that faces the global market and easily can assume the role of strategic product for the region. Nowadays, wine, in particular the quality wine, has the characters of a product through which various regions hope to compete on the market. Wine embodies characters more and more immaterial, linked not only with its intrinsic quality but also to those conveyed by the methods of its production and by the milieu in which it originates. It is precisely from the concentration of a great historical tradition in small geographic areas, on the behalf of a relatively limited human group that its attractiveness and value originate. In many cases, the local identity reveals preponderant even with respect to the corporate identity. In recent times, the process of making wine has become, in a somehow paradoxical way, even more traditional than in the past, but at the same time has undergone radical changes that bring about new productive realities. The new features regard the target markets, the new techniques of marketing and communication, and the product and process innovation, topics to which both the evolution of industrial interrelations and the incidence of this activity on the whole economy are strictly linked.